In August 2005, two experienced mountain climbers from Spain climbed what was probably a virgin summit in the Big Pamir. They called it Koh-e-Maghrebi (West Peak) (6 040 m). They reached the summit of Koh-e-Maghrebi from the Ali Su Valley on 13 August 2005. The two maps below give details of their itinerary.
See road map here.
Climbing Koh-e-Noshaq (کوه نوشاک)
Noshaq (or Nowshak, o Nurshak) is the most famous and highest peak in Afghanistan (7 492 m) and the second highest mountain in the Hindu Kush. It rises just north of the Pakistan border, and just north of the highest mountain in the range, Tirich Mir. Noshaq's summit crest supports several high peaks. The first ascent of the mountain was in 1960 by Toshiaki Sakai and Goro Iwatsuboa of a Japanese expedition. The climb followed the southeast ridge from the Qadzi Deh Glacier. Nowadays, the normal route is by the West ridge. Its ascent is straightforward, and its numerous successful ascents include the first winter ascent of a high Asian mountain, achieved by a Polish expedition in February 1973.
In 2003 an Italian expedition successfully climbed Mt Noshaq. The aim of this initiative (called OXUS Mission Mountains for Peace) was to send a message world-wide that it is again possible to carry out ascents and trekkings in North-Eastern Afghanistan without taking risks connected with political instability or attacks by bandits. For more information see OXUS Expedition official web site.
Climbing Koh-e-Pamir (کوه پامیر)
In 1975 an Austrian expedition climbed Koh-e-Pamir. The expedition is at the origin of several maps of the area as well as a book, Grosser Pamir. Österreichisches Forschungsunternehmen 1975 in den Wakhan-Pamir/Afghanistan, which was published in 1978. See here for more details on the maps. Koh-e-Pamir has probably never been climbed since then. Koh-e-Pamir lies at the north end of the Issik Valley. See map above.
In May 2005, two people including Mark Jenkins from Outside Magazine climbed Koh-e-Bardar, a 19 941-foot peak in the Wakhan Valley. See their trip report here.
Other popular climbs in the 70s included the Koh-e-Marco Polo (20 256 feet) and the Koh-e-Hilal (20 607 feet).
In 1966, a Polish expedition climbed the Kourobatcho Zom (5 400 m), the Tchap Zom (5 400 m) and the Noshaq.
In 1968, a French expedition led by Henri Agresti, climbed the Koh-e-Abs (5 000 m), the Koh-e-Rank (5 930 m), the Koh-e-Wakhan (a different one), the Koh-e-Sarkand (5 700 m), the Koh-e-Tirma (5 950 m), the Koh-e-Setara (6 030 m), and the Koh-e-James (6 210 m), all located in the Qala-e-Panj Valley. Their trip report is included in a document called Montagnes arides du Wakhan by Henri Agresti. It is available at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (in French only). I have a hard copy of this document, if you need it do not hesitate to email me.
Another French expedition from Lyon climbed the Shakhaur (7 000 m) in 1969 located in the Shakhaur Valley.